Use LYSAGHT® BONDEK® II design software for support widths other than 100mm. Slab: The slabs are effectively 10 ft x 30 ft, with an aspect ratio of 3, making them one-way slabs. ACI 318-08 requirements for slabs without interior beams or slabs with beams spa nning between supports on all four sides with α fm < 0. Large maximum sizes of aggregates produce less voids than smaller sizes. To connect with Civil Work, join Facebook today. The reduced weight also lowers material and transportation costs. slabs from 12’ to 30’ b. • The structure size is a function of the number, size, elevation and entry angle of pipes connecting to the structure. As for many similar developments. (75 to 100 mm) Typical load DL = 67 to 78 psf (3. In previous projects it was found that the. Reinforced Concrete Design to BS8110 Structural Design 1 - Lesson 5 5 4. The Worst Roofing Job Ever! This Tops Anything I have Seen in 25 Years of Roofing - Duration: 7:11. 2 Typical detailing at supporting walls The detailing of suspended concrete floor slabs is. Traditionally column spacings and floor spans in these buildings have been in the range of 6 to 9 metres, to both contain costs and simplify construction. 876 = Conversion constant. 5 metres with 1. 00, is considered to be two-way. Ribbed floors consisting of equally spaced ribs are usually supported directly by columns. girders of concrete with the reinforcement continu-ous over the support. 5 meter 8 feet are specified in Section 03 41 33 PRECAST STRUCTURAL PRETENSIONED CONCRETE. CE 433, Fall 2006 Deflection of a Reinforced Concrete Beam Overview The deflection of reinforced concrete beams is complicated by several factors. These beams are exposed usually. 0 x 106 pounds per square inch) 257. *** Drop panels are defined as extension of slab thickening into span not less than span/6, and extension. In this case the moment steel is placed in the slab bottom and extends across the entire slab length. 11 Wire Failure in Steel Strands. temporary crane void inﬁlls) temporary. If the slab satisfies all the conditions to be considered as the flange, it can be designed as a T beam at some specified regions along the length of the beam. Note: The self-weight of the steel deck and concrete slab have already been accounted for in the maximum specified uniformly distributed load given in the composite slab load table. The office requires that CCS superstructures be designed by the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) method. The analysis results correlated well with the results of a control test of the RC slab, which confirmed adequacy of the design. Refer page 07 – Design Table Notes for further information on deﬂection limits. Assumed loads and other design data as may be required for the proper preparation of shop drawings. Banu Mukhtar has an impressive track record of providing the worthy clients with durable, cost effective and long span covering double Tees and hold the record for covering the maximum span in Double Tee roofing in Pakistan. The maximum distance between movement joints is in the order of 50 metres. Please Contact Us is you require specific information regarding your project. At slab folds, it is important to check tendon profile at critical points along the span to ensure the cable is positioned properly. West Coast Roofer - Roofing and Roof Repair 3,284,147 views. Following ACI 318 guidelines would have required a maximum slab thickness of 10”. The goal of this reinforced concrete design example is to design a simply supported reinforced concrete one-way slab subjected to dead and live loads per ACI Code 318-11. Concrete does not burn and can never be turned off or malfunction. Figures (4, 5, and 6) show the relationship between load and deflection at mid-span of slabs, for both the experimental tests and the numerical analyses. Definition of Concrete Slabs Concrete slabs are common foundation/floor systems in many parts of the world, particularly in warmer climates with soils that are stable (i. 1) The connections of a cast-in-place reinforced concrete frame usually transfer moment. Aalto University, P. Description. C 21 Standard for Composite Steel loor Deck-Slabs AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE/ STEEL DECK INSTITUTE STEEL DECK s INSTITUTE ® 2 2 H. The concrete slab roof is cantilevered out by 1. A slab or panel is said to be two way slab if the ratio of longer span to the shorter span is not greater than 2 (two). (200 mm) 20 ft. System of welded mesh reinforcement 7. I am looking for a poured concrete roof system that is structural and can span a maximum of 40ft. 5 hour fire rating. Optimization of Span-to-Depth Ratios in High-Strength Concrete Girder Bridges Sandy Shuk-Yan Poon Master of Applied Science Graduate Department of Civil Engineering University of Toronto 2009 ABSTRACT Span-to-depth ratio is an important bridge design parameter that affects structural behaviour, construction costs and aesthetics. CONCRETE SLAB DESIGN ASSISTANT FOR INTRODUCTION The concrete slab design assistant allows the user to quickly generate the design strips of a concrete slab. When a concrete barrier is used on a slab bridge, its structural adequacy as edge beaman should typically only need to be verified. Segmental bridges are popular when the construction site is restricted. I have done some as close as 12" when there is suspected soil issues are at hand. 00, is considered to be two-way. Here ratio of longer span of slab to the shorter span of slab is greater than 2. Two-way slab is suitable and economical for the panel sizes up to 6m x 6m. The allowed recommended span lengths for continuous slabs are equal to 13. accept the maximum size pipe. So, a minimum thickness of 5″ should be maintained. It is a measure of an unreinforced con-crete beam or slab to resist failure in bending. Slab Bridge Designer 2. Greater accuracy may be achieved by considering small increments of span and computing relevant curvatures and thus overall deflections. , and unfactored live load = 100 psf. When the more exact ‘ICE Technical Note 372’ method for calculating deflection is used they recommended that the concrete tensile stress at the outer face of the concrete should be limited to a maximum of 0. These construction tables take ponding into account. In this post I shall discuss maximum aggregate size that can be used in design. As long as i can pour concrete and there will be no thermal bridging. For continuous beam (i) If width of support < 1/12 of clear span (ii) If width of support > 1/12 of clear span. Since a CMFS is a “real load,” shear stresses and floor deflection for concrete flat plates should be reviewed. The measured maximum loads were 322. 5 metres wide footway on either side for a National Highway. They are either one-way spanning systems known as ribbed slab or a two-way ribbed system known as a waffle slab. 00-1 INTRODUCTION It is the intent of this chapter to establish the practices and specific requirements of the Structure. Figures (4, 5, and 6) show the relationship between load and deflection at mid-span of slabs, for both the experimental tests and the numerical analyses. This form of construction is not very common because of the formwork costs and the low fire rating. Calculation models were developed to simultaneously predict the maximum bending load capacity of the strengthened components. 5″ or more for internal wiring, which effectively reduces slab depths at certain places, causing cracking, weakening and water leakage during rains. Remove and replace any seven wire steel strand that contains a broken wire. temporary crane void inﬁlls) temporary. be approximately 1 13 of the middle strip in no case greater in details the spacing of the bars at the column strips can bars near the support unless otherwise indicated or shown those along the longer span at center and over the longer span 2. Note: The shear area of concrete is entered as input to some computer programs when the analysis is required to take into account the deformations due to shear. The recommendations for robustness have been prepared on the assumption that all load-bearing 1) 1)) 1) ). Girder spacing is controlled by the spanning ability of the concrete deck slab. Floorspan Calculator. Large maximum sizes of aggregates produce less voids than smaller sizes. Description. Deflections of flat slabs 10. Traditional slab spans in small residential buildings vary from 3-3. Where con-crete floor slab dimensions exceed 24 m in one or both directions, a free joint must be installed. Span SITECAST CONCRETE SLAB BANDS 203 mm 152 mm The top chart is for sitecast con- crete one-way solid slab construc- tion, either conventionally rein- forced or posttensioned. Design of Concrete Structures 14th Edition, 2009, by Arthur H. getcracking – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow. 5-inch slab thickness plus the thickness of the rib) are shown in Table 2. For a 30" depth, 2" is about the norm. 4kg eCO2 /m2 18 000 tonnes CO2 per year. Tendons today are seven high-strength steel wires wound together and placed inside a plastic duct. Different Types of concrete slabs in construction:-There are 16 different types of Slabs in Construction. 5 m height is an extreme situation, but according to a number. Temporary Propping Decking is usually designed un-propped, however for longer or single span locations (i. for the concrete during construction, but also as the principal tensile reinforcement for the bottom fibers of the composite slab. 3L for parabolic haunches, & 0. A reinforced concrete slab is built integrally with its supports and consists of equal span of 15 ft. Deck slab cantilevers at the edge of the deck will control the position of the outer main girders. Spanwright Hollowcore Concrete Flooring. – In this case, the stack of slabs will act as a solid beam. mild-steel, structural steel, stainless steel or alloyed alumimum, 3. Reinforced concrete beams are nonhomogeneous in that they are made of two entirely different materials. 5 metres wide footway on either side for a National Highway. 5 metres with 1. The cost of the concrete, including placing and finishing, usually accounts for about 30% to 35% of the overall cost of the floor sys-tem. Although purposes of concrete form work is constant yet form work checklist is different for different shuttering materials used in concrete form. Be sure to properly draw the corrugation of the decking, as its proper dimensions assure its rigidity. Buettner and Roger J. Civil Work is on Facebook. In order to better control excess bridge vibrations and. Offering an essential background for a thorough understanding of building code requirements and design procedures for slabs, Reinforced Concrete Slabs, Second Edition provides a full treatment of today's approaches to reinforced concrete slab analysis and design. 5 m); a longer maximum transverse joint spacing may be used, however, based on local experience. 53), being built with the beam and a part of it. 0 5SB12 28 40 18. 405-2DD Reinforced Concrete Bridge Approach Bill of Materials 405-3A Haunch Configurations for Reinforced Concrete Slab Superstructures 405-3B Typical Reinforced Concrete Slab Superstructure 405-3C Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement for Slab Superstructure 405-3D Integral Cap at Slab Superstructure (Typical Half-Section). This Chapter documents NDOT criteria on the design of bridge decks that are constructed compositely in conjunction with concrete and steel girders and top slabs of cast-in-place, post-tensioned box girders. It is a measure of an unreinforced con-crete beam or slab to resist failure in bending. Reinforced Concrete Design ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Maryland, College Park COLUMNS Part I – Concrete Design and Analysis FALL 2002 By Dr. Designing large spans between columns often requires the use of support beams and/or very thick slabs, thereby increasing the weight of the structure by requiring the use of large amounts of concrete. ) 05/15 PART 1 GENERAL 1. 5-inch slab thickness plus the thickness of the rib) are shown in Table 2. A slab or panel is said to be two way slab if the ratio of longer span to the shorter span is not greater than 2 (two). 1 Precast prestressed slabs spanning between walls with composite. A reinforced concrete slab formed to provide a rugged support when resting on soft soil to form a runway for aircraft or the like, said slab being formed of reinforced concrete and provided with reinforced concrete projections shaped to form pockets for the reception of soil, said projections being resistant to bending and being secured rigidly to the underside of the slab. Load chara c t e r istics must obv i - ously va r y with the decking configu-rations and thickness, span re i n f o r cement, concrete stre n g t h and concrete thickness. Ductility Criteria. addition to the decking depth, a concrete floor of 2‐3” must be poured on top of the floor. Each single slabs are referred to as panels, if the slab is continuous over supports. Static analysis of two-way slabs, subjected to uniform load, is performed using tables, which give the fundamental support moments, span moments and shear forces. Slab bands or joist bands may be used with. Subtract the bottom of top slab elevation from the elevation of the point of maximum fill to arrive at the design fill. Maximum reactions force, deflection, bending and torsional moments is calculated and compared for different angles with different span. 5(c) of ACI gives the minimum thickness of slabs without interior beams. Maximum = 30 cm when measured along the periphery of the column. Permatile manufactures precast concrete slabs for use in replacement of bridge superstructure. Methods of analysis 4. Hollowcore and Beam & Block Load Span Tables. Concrete quality shall be F'c = 32 Mpa, maximum aggregate size 20 mm , slump 80 mm. Re: Calculating the Load Bearing Capacity of Concrete Floors 12/04/2009 7:28 AM There isn't any one formula, the selection of which one depends on how the slab is supported, where the rebar is placed, the type and placement of loads, etc. The effective span 3. Stronger, more efficient floor slab design creates longer spans and reduces the need for columns within the structure. The best conditions for proper curing and maximum strength is in dry weather between 50 and 90 degrees Fahrenheit for 72 hours. The width, depending on the production procedure, is up to 3 m, thickness of the concrete board is 80 - 120 mm. Minor arches are those whoe spans do not exceed 6’-0” and with maximum rise to span ratios of 0. Knowing the load-bearing capacity of your concrete is essential to make sure that what you plan to have supported by the wall or slab will not be too heavy and cause it to crack and break. Some of them are outdated and many of them are frequently used everywhere. pcf and has a maximum flame-spread rating of 25 and maximum smoke-density rating of 450 when tested in accordance with ASTM E84 in a thickness of 4 inches. PREFACE TO PRODUCT LOAD TABLES DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS Maximum Bottom Range of Maximum Precast Tension Stress Span-To-Depth Ratio Double Tee Floor Slabs 12 f 'c 25 to 30. It is just that the thickness of the slab shall increase. Hollow block slab is a ribbed slab formed using blocks of a material lighter than concrete, usually hollow clay blocks or foam blocks. The deck span (m) used in the table is based on: (support the concrete slab in a zone of 15mm to 40mm from the top of c/c - support bearing) + the deck depth. Sav-ings in cost and time will keep your. Slab thickness can be 340mm assuming 400 wide beams. usually slabs • When shear reinforcement isrequired e. Designing large spans between columns often requires the use of support beams and/or very thick slabs, thereby increasing the weight of the structure by requiring the use of large amounts of concrete. n slabs is approximately n times the resistance of one slab alone. The cost of the concrete, including placing and finishing, usually accounts for about 30% to 35% of the overall cost of the floor sys-tem. 5) Slab Design 103. The 30-story volume embodies the higher workforce densities and flexible space planning of 21 st-century offices, thanks to floor plates that span nearly 45 feet between core and perimeter. Many modern homes are built on a post-tension slab, which serves as an excellent foundation. 95-Foot-long Double Tee in Karachi. To resist cracking of the concrete slabs, EC2 (Sec. 26f ctm b t d/f yk but not less than 0. A 1-1/8" concrete topping is required for the 3 hour restrained rating. Design of Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beams and Slabs Master of Science Thesis in the Master’s Programme Structural Engineering and Building Performance Design AMMAR ABID, KENNETH B. 5 5SB15 28 50 22. Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 107 B = 1. MAXIMUM CONSTRUCTION CLEAR SPANS (S. Shear connectors in fire situation If shear connectors are provided you can ignore any catenary. rounded elongated angular all of the above ⇒ For the construction of cement con-certe dams, the maximum permissible size of the aggregates, is. Where vapor retarder is required between a concrete floor slab and the prepared sub grade, the joints of vapor retarder shall be lapped a minimum of_____ inches. It must be able to sit on top of the exterior ICF walls and overhang so there is a soffit/fascia. These figures may be increased under certain circumstances of spans and loadings by provision of additional prestressing strands to the. Reinforcement: Extends from the concrete slab on each side into the closure strip to form a lapped splice. of 12 t per m and allowable shear stress is 5 kg/cm2, the beam. Prestressing provides for longer span lengths and shallower rise heights creating maximum hydraulic efficiency. Deflection of two way slab could be calculated by using available. All timber 4. The highly popular double tee slab system is an excellent choice for an economical, dependable floor or roof system on other types of structures, as well. Not to encourage him, but with stiff beams all around, the thickness of the slab between can be the clear span perimeter of the slab divided by 140. In Table (5), ln is the length of clear span in the long direction measured face-to-face of supports in slabs without beams and face-to-face of beams or other supports in other cases. The crack pattern, load-elongation curve and the experimental values were investigated. For unshored construction, such as most composite slabs, the re-sponsibility for controlling deflec-tion isn't always clear. Calculator works for rectangular beams, positive-moment and negative-moment T-beams, and 1-way slabs, as shown in the sections below:. lightweight and can achieve up to a max span of 20’0” and max slab of 8” using 4000 psi regular weight concrete. 5 5SB15 28 50 22. 17kN/m2 Minimum concrete strength at 28 days 50MPa Suggested maximum span/depth ratio Typical limiting L/30 for deflection Subject to Engineer’s design Reinforcing type. common spacing of 20” and 30” between ribs e. 350 Mission achieves a new paradigm for office tower structures by utilizing post-tensioned long-span flat concrete slabs, a method traditionally reserved. In short spans, they may be located at midspan. One-way slabs:. With Roof assemblies, the critical input is the Span. COMMERCIAL OPPORTUNITIES CCL post-tensioning results in thinner concrete slabs. Determine suitable dimensions for the effective depth and width of the beam. Once the cables have reached the designated tension, they are anchored in the concrete, and the slab is allowed to fully cure. Concrete Slab Maximum Length Calculator. The Post-Tensioning Institute (PTI) Design Manual6 gives recommended span-to-thickness ratios for slabs and span-to-depth ratios for beams. AASHTO HS20 design truck loads are first placed transversally in all lanes, positioned side-by-side and close to one edge of the bridge slab; this fully loaded condition served as a reference. In other words, subtracting this cover dimension from the slab or beam thickness gives the effective depth. This method has been used extensively since 1963 for slabs supported at the edges by walls, steel beams, or monolithic concrete beams having a total depth not less than about 3 times the slab thickness. for all girder spacings less than or equal to 9 ft. Establish the type of load applied to the floor as being either a UDL (uniformly distributed load) or a concentrated load. Concrete Deck. (320 mm) or less was validated 20 or more years ago through testing. With Floor assemblies, the critical input is the Span. The parameters investigated in this analytical study were the span lengths and skew angle. (l/m ) MAXIMUM SPAN (m) Imposed Loads (1. The live load is 100 psfand the only dead load is theslab itself. However, recently there is a preference for large floor areas with column-free space and spans. Refer page 07 – Design Table Notes for further information on deﬂection limits. The minimum spacing is the maximum of 1 in, a bar diameter, or 1. A small slab thickness makes them chipper in transport. Design of Concrete Structures 14th Edition, 2009, by Arthur H. E fficiency. the office selects continuous concrete slab (CCS) superstructures. When a concrete barrier is used on a slab bridge, its structural adequacy as edge beaman should typically only need to be verified. • Waffle slab can be efficiently cantilevered in two directions up to 1/3 of a main span. 5 5SB15 28 50 22. Long Span Composite Slab Systems 53 CHAPTER 5 LONG SPAN COMPOSITE SLAB SYSTEMS 5. Precast concrete slabs for clear spans exceeding 2. Except as specifically required by this Standard, ACI 318 shall not be applicable to the. , and unfactored live load = 100 psf. Problem 2 Figure 1 shows an eight-span floor slab spanning east-west. The slabs possessing ratio of longer length to its smaller length (Ly/Lx) higher than 2 is known as one way slab or else as two way slab. A concrete slab is just a wide beam, yes you can span a slab over 10m. CONCRETE: All concrete work for the reinforced concrete slabs shall comply with the provisions of the latest edition of AS 3600, the Concrete Code and AS 2870, the Residential Slabs and Footings Code. Due to problems with the data acquisition system, the strains in the SL04S were not measured. Experimental tests were performed on two (2) series of beams (slices of slab), identified as the PP and BC series. Cross-sectional areas of the floor beams and girders are 14. In this post I shall discuss maximum aggregate size that can be used in design. Optimization of Span-to-Depth Ratios in High-Strength Concrete Girder Bridges Sandy Shuk-Yan Poon Master of Applied Science Graduate Department of Civil Engineering University of Toronto 2009 ABSTRACT Span-to-depth ratio is an important bridge design parameter that affects structural behaviour, construction costs and aesthetics. HPD, ASD & LRFD and LS used as concrete form 80 Concrete Volumes and Slab Design Data 81 Concrete Slabs on Form Deck 82 - 83 UFS, UF1X, UFX, UF2X Maximum Span and Cantilever Tables 84 Slab and Reinforcement Data 85 Fire Resistance Ratings 86 SDI Long Form Specifications 87 - 91 Introduction 92 Diaphragm Design Example 93 Typical Fastener Layout 94. The tension steel area required and detailin g for appropriate strips can be as per IS 456:2000. 7 in2 and 52. 3L for parabolic haunches, & 0. The concrete strength is 25 MPa and the reinforcement strength is 420 MPa. Concrete Slab (by others) Slab thickness is typically 2 1/2” (3 1/2” total depth) normal weight concrete having a minimum 28 day ultimate compressive strength of 3,000 psi. E c is the concrete elastic modulus, psi f t ' is the tensile strength of the concrete = 7. Intermediate values may be interpolated. The second criterion is structural endpoint. be appropriate when a CMFS is located on a concrete flat slab or flat plate or other heavily designed concrete floor systems. Reinforcement details of concrete beams and slabs should specify clearly about cover to reinforcement, length of reinforcement, curtailment of reinforcement, number and diameter of reinforcement to be provided. 5 5SB15 30 50 22. SITECAST CONCRETE ONE-WAY SOLID SLAB SITECAST CONCRETE. Concrete tiles: 53: Weights of Building Materials in Floors. 19 July 2019 5. than 2 13 times the slab thickness. Your question is what they mean by "least width of the compression flange/face of beam". slabs from 12’ to 30’ b. • Precast concrete non-load bearing façade panels. Reinforced Concrete, 2014, 9th Edition, ACI 318-11 Code Edition, by Jack C. I am designing a concrete roof slab that span across 12m long and 9m width for my living area. in the Design Guide for Long-Span Concrete Floors15. A 1-1/8" concrete topping is required for the 3 hour restrained rating. Box 12100, FI-00076 AALTO www. 2, the minimum thickness is given in Table 4. A flat slab may be solid slab or may have recesses formed on the soffit so that the sof fit comprises a series of ribs in two directions. deck slabs with end diaphragms and paving notches are similar. 04 kN for the SC120f-PSC-J1 and J2 specimens, respectively, while the deflections of the center of the deck slab under the maximum load were 58. beam design. 5 Page 1 of 5 10/2017 PRECAST PRESTRESSED SLAB PRELIMINARY DESIGN CURVES PRECAST PRESTRESSED SLAB W/ASPHALT OVERLAY Section Properties and maximum span length curves for the precast prestressed slabs are included in this Article. When concrete reaches its maximum strain at the same time as the steel reach is yielding stress, it is called a balance condition. The width, depending on the production procedure, is up to 3 m, thickness of the concrete board is 80 - 120 mm. , interior beam dimensions = 14 in. LRFD Deck Slab Design Procedure, Equations, and Outline Design Stresses f'c = 4. With this strengthening method it is possible to transfer the loads from the span of the slab directly to the column through the tendons, so that the undesirable. 4) Design sagging moment (per m width of slab) m sx = 85. Max Span Approx Structure Depth (IN) 5SB12 24 40 18. It is a measure of the maximum stress on the tension face of an unreinforced concrete beam or slab at the point of failure in bending. 75 Kn/m Bending Moment B. 50m, 200mm planks — 10. Take the Quiz and improve your overall Engineering. of 12 t per m and allowable shear stress is 5 kg/cm2, the beam. They can be used for applications such as fly over bridges on motor ways, pedestrian bridges, commercial developments, marine jetties among many others. , interior beam dimensions = 14 in. The minimum area of principal reinforcement is A s,min = 0. 6 psi) for link slabs 1 and 2, respectively. For example, in a concrete suspended slab floor, the span will determine how thick the slab needs to be. (7,600 mm). A two-course surface treatment, or no wearing surface, may be used for low-volume roadways at the District's discretion. Beam Type Roadwy Width Max Span Approx Structure Depth (IN) 5SB12 24 40 18. Flat slab design should be based on the longer panel dimension. Cover is determined from the requirements for corrosion protection, fire protection, and wear. what size i beam for suspended concrete slab? Answer: The size of i beam to support suspended slab depends on the length or span of the beam and the load it carries. ASSIGNMENT 2 Section A-Reinforced Concrete QUESTION 1 Figure Q1, shows a simply supported two-way spanning slab. 4 Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 72 CH. Filler slab technology can also be applied to mass housing projects and township projects to gain high cost saving and also saving in high energy consuming materials. All reinforced concrete including precast 2. Determine the floor loads on the floor beams, girders, and columns. Designs that exceed these limits may be possible, but only after consulting with local producers and trucking companies. 19 July 2019 5. If that’s the case, use the hook on the edge of the concrete placer to pull the rebar up into the center of the concrete as you pour. addition to the decking depth, a concrete floor of 2‐3” must be poured on top of the floor. What is the maximum span of a waffle floor slab? Wide module or skip system allows longer span and uses less concrete than the one-way joist system. 1 Worked example A simply supported beam has an effective span of 9 m and supports loads as shown. Interactive Scaled Diagrams - Imperial Calculate Rebar Spacing, Layout and Weight in a Concrete Slab. The slab depths in the tables are m e a s u red from the top of the slab to the bottom of the ribs in the deck-ing. The office requires that CCS superstructures be designed by the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) method. Concrete was used for construction in many ancient structures. span and complex structure 1. Based on my experience, slab thickness made of concrete varies from 100mm to 200mm thickness. While cracks in a slab may not seem like a big deal, the smallest crack represents a large amount of downward pressure that may be crushing pipework beneath. Maximum span/depth ratios of 45 are recommended for floors. Steel-reinforced slabs, typically between 100 and 500 mm thick, are most often used to construct floors and ceilings, while thinner mud slabs may be used for exterior paving (see below). G et al in 2015, studied the effect of a skew angle on single-span reinforced concrete bridges and PSC. Concrete beams are expected to crack in flexure, with such cracks forming perpendicular to longitudinal tension reinforcement, i. 4 Three Span Beam Analysis 99 4. gateprecast. The Romans used concrete extensively from 300 BC to 476 AD, a span of more than seven hundred years. Determine the floor loads on the floor beams, girders, and columns. Designs include attractive single-piece arches, functional two-piece arches, conventionally reinforced flat bridges, parapets, wingwalls, headwalls and endwalls. Static analysis of two-way slabs, subjected to uniform load, is performed using tables, which give the fundamental support moments, span moments and shear forces. Lengthening the span may be more economical (fewer slabs to make and install). Maximum span/depth ratios of 45 are recommended for floors. If a slab exceeds the 24 m maximum dimension without the inclusion of free joints, it must be specifically designed. What is the maximum span of a concrete slab as a foundation for a deck and should it be epoxied or bolted down? You can set the joist directly into a 3 or 4 foot hole filled with concrete. LowSpan provides longer clear spans due to its prestressed top slab. Saw-cut joints should be done within 4 to 12 hours after the concrete has been finished. Reinforcement details of concrete beams and slabs should specify clearly about cover to reinforcement, length of reinforcement, curtailment of reinforcement, number and diameter of reinforcement to be provided. with skews more than 15°. ASSIGNMENT 2 Section A-Reinforced Concrete QUESTION 1 Figure Q1, shows a simply supported two-way spanning slab. The cost function represents the cost of concrete, steel reinforcement and formwork.